Gandhi’s Fifth Social Sin: Science without Humanity

According to some theories, humans first interpreted the world in terms of magic and superstition.  It was believed that gods and sorcery determined and predicted whatever happened in the world. The Bible of course, states that a single God created the world but in many other cultures multiple gods were deemed responsible for creating, organizing and virtually running the world.  After many centuries, humans started explaining the world and why things ran based on a new concept called Religion.  Religious beliefs supplanted magic as an explanation for why things happened.  If you were good, good things happened to you and if you were bad, bad things happened to you.  Priests had the power of life and death over their constituents.  Witness the crucifixion of Jesus Christ wherein the Pharisees basically took the matter out of Pilate’s hands and had Jesus condemned to death.   Religion ruled for many centuries until what we call the “Enlightenment” Age when philosophy started to replace religion as a new way to  explain why things happened.  According to Wikipedia:

Originating about 1650 to 1700, the Enlightenment was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727),[2] and philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778). Ruling princes often endorsed and fostered figures and even attempted to apply their ideas of government in what was known as enlightened absolutism. The Scientific Revolution is closely tied to the Enlightenment, as its discoveries overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on nature and man’s place within it.

Philosophers attempted to use reason and logic to explain the world and why things happened. Superstition, magic and religion were now deemed as “unreasonable” since their explanations of the world were not based on sound principles of logic and thought.  Philosophers began to supplant priests as having the explanations for what made the world work as it did.  Many of the theories during the Enlightenment drew upon the ideas of Plato and Aristotle who proceeded this era by nearly 2000 years.  It should not be thought that magic and religion were totally discounted as explanations of the world.  It is more accurate to say that they were “dethroned” as being the best way to explain the world. People today still rely on magic and religious beliefs as explanations for why and how the world works. 

Moving along, it did not take many years for philosophy to be replaced by science as an even better way of explaining the world. As with each new way of explaining the world, there was overlap with the previous method.  Philosophy and religion had much in common as did the scientific method and philosophy.  However, there were some major differences. Whereas philosophy relied on logic and thought, the scientific method uses strict empirical evidence for determining truth and links causality to repeatable demonstrations of events that can be witnessed by even an unbiased observer.  In science there is no room for subjectivity, biases or opinions.  The Scientific Method is defined as:

A method of investigation in which a problem is first identified and observations, experiments, or other relevant data are then used to construct or test hypotheses that purport to solve it.

In the 21st Century, the new King to explain how and why the world works the way it does is science.  The majority of the population has shifted from accepting explanations of reality given by priests, philosophers and witch doctors to explanations given by doctors, scientists and “expert” witnesses.  Each of these latter groups base their expertise (Or so they say) on the Scientific Method.  The Scientific Method gives them credibility and is accepted in our courts today as the most credible method for establishing the validity and reliability of evidence from blood tests, to fingerprints to DNA tests.  Of course, good old opinions and biases still show up in our courts but basically, we deem the Justice method to be a method that relies on science to prove the guilt or innocence of any suspects and not voodoo, religion or magic.  So what does Gandhi mean by Science without Humanity?

“This is science used to discover increasingly more gruesome weapons of destruction that threaten to eventually wipe out humanity. The NRA says guns don’t kill people, people kill people. What they do not say is that if people didn’t have guns they wouldn’t have the capacity to kill as quickly or as easily. If hunting can be considered a sport, it is the most insensitive and dehumanizing sport on earth. How can killing animals bring fun and excitement to anyone? This is pleasure without conscience. When we cease to care for any life, we cease to respect all life. No other species on earth has wrought more destruction than man. Materialism has made us possessive. The more we possess the more we need to protect and so the more ruthless we become. As punishment, we will kill if someone steals to buy bread. We feel violated. But we will not bother our heads to find out why, in times of plenty, people have to live in hunger. In order to protect and secure our homes, our neighborhoods, our countries from attacks, we use science to discover frightening weapons of destruction. The debate over the use of the atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a question that falls under this category. War is sometimes inevitable only because we are such ardent nationalists that we quickly label ourselves by our country of origin, by gender, by the color of our skin, by the language we speak, by the religion we practice, by the town or the state we come from and so on. The labels dehumanize us, and we become mere objects. Not too long ago even wars were fought according to rules, regulations, ethics and some semblance of morality. Then Hitler changed the rules because of his monumental hate and the rest of us followed suit. Now we can obliterate cities and inhabitants by pressing a button and not be affected by the destruction because we don’t see it.”

One of my favorite quotes has always been the comment by Max Born that the development of space travel was “A triumph of intellect but a tragic failure of reason.”  This same comment has been applied to many scientific triumphs from the atom bomb to the development of Fracking to remove oil and natural gas.  We have become so enamored or perhaps so ensnared by the power of the scientific method that we often suspend our criticism of its developments or products.  We mindlessly accept that science knows better than we do.  Each new development of ever more lethal weapons is uncritically accepted since they will “save” lives and shorten the length of the “new” war we want to wage. We have harnessed the power of science to create machines and products that are almost unlimited in their capacities to destroy.  We accept these in the name of science which cannot be questioned.

On a more personal basis, we allow science and scientists and anyone claiming a link to the scientific method to explain and control our bodies.  We need a new hip replacement, we need this heart surgery, we need this knee replacement, we need this cancer treatment, we need this pill, we need this procedure, and we need this diet.  We are willing to accept anything the “experts” tell us because we have no desire or ability to challenge the scientific method.  We are so blinded by the obfuscations of the new witch doctors that we don’t see the shell game they are playing on us.  It is a game that relies on our complete credibility of their methods and their expertise.  We suspend all thought processes when in the sphere of these marvelous scientists who seem to be able to explain everything from how long it took to create the universe to how long it will take us to recover from our surgery.  We forget a very important factor in this process.

Science never did and never will have a heart.  It has no humanity.  The scientific method does not use any system of ethics or morality to determine its direction and goals.  The pure scientist is an automaton who will work for a Roosevelt or a Hitler.  The doctor that you so thoroughly rely on for your procedures and prescriptions is as motivated by his/her financial interests as by an interest in your health and well-being.  If this latter fact were not enough to give you pause, consider the infatuation that doctors and scientists often have with their own products.  The new knee implant, the new pacemaker, the new hip socket, the new medication are all designed to last forever and to cure whatever you have.  But then again, maybe not!  Are we forgetting the side effects in our rush to take this pill or allow this operation?  Do we really need a new knee or hip or should we really lose a hundred or so pounds?  Do we really need to be on these pills or should we simply change our diets or exercise more?  What does humanity have to do with this? 

Humanity is the moral compass that we need must guide our efforts and work.  What do we mean by humanity?  Here are a set of definitions for humanity:

Humanity

  1. The quality of being human; the peculiar nature of man, by which he is distinguished from other beings.
  2. Mankind collectively; the human race.
  3. The quality of being humane; the kind feelings, dispositions, and sympathies of man; especially, a disposition to relieve persons or animals in distress, and to treat all creatures with kindness and tenderness.
  4. Mental cultivation; liberal education; instruction in classical and polite literature.
  5. The branches of polite or elegant learning; as language, rhetoric, poetry, and the ancient classics; belles-letters.

Read more at http://www.brainyquote.com/words/hu/humanity174669.html#4i0OmiXESZB3liZE.99 

We must act and live as human beings and not as animals. To produce something without a moral compass might be legitimate in light of the fact that objects often have multiple and even ambiguous uses. However, to use anything without a moral compass whether it is a gun, bomb or surgical procedure is simply evil.  It is evil because it can result in destruction that has no redeeming value.  When we act without a moral compass, we act out of greed, anger, vengeance, jealousy, or simply mindlessness.  We act as animals and not as human beings.  Actions based on such motives and allied with scientifically designed weapons and procedures can only bring destruction to us and the world. Gandhi had the foresight to see this fact in 1925 long before atom bombs, guided missiles and laser weapons were developed.  Just as commerce without morality is evil, science without humanity is evil.  That is why Gandhi labeled it a social sin. 

Time for Questions:

Do you believe that science is the best method for solving the world’s problems?  How much of the scientific method do you understand?  Do you rely on others to explain science to you?  Do you value the benefits of science?  What would you change about science and how it is often interpreted?  How can we improve our understanding of the world?  Is there any room for magic and religion? 

Life is just beginning.

 

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41 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. NARAYAN
    May 23, 2013 @ 05:01:12

    Hi Dr. Persico ,

    Are we not labelling Science on the basis of what we see of scientists ?

    Isn’t this similar to labelling religions on the basis of their adherents ?

    Science , in its basics , is for Truth ; Gandhi was a seeker of Truth ; he would surely have appreciated this aspect of Science.

    All of us refer to Hiroshima and Nagasaki , as well as Hitler ; why don’t we refer to the many scientists who fled Hitler’s Germany because they did not agree with both his theories and his methods ?

    Isn’t it possible that the scientists who helped develop the atom bomb might not have done so if a war had not been going on ?

    Any doctor who prescribes a treatment to a patient should :

    a. have a fair idea of its long-term consequences / side effects
    b. have a fair idea of its chances of success in healing the patient

    Doctors who prescribe treatments which have dangerous / possibly fatal consequences , or which have very low rates of success are not doing their duty to either Science or their patient.

    Instead of saying that science without humanity is evil , shouldn’t we be saying that inhumanity is evil ? The ambulance driver who did not reach the accident spot in time because he / she stopped to smoke a cigarette or have a cup of tea is evil !

    Reply

    • johnpersico
      May 28, 2013 @ 01:11:09

      Hi, thanks for the comments Narayan, However, I must disagree with you. Your logic is that science is neutral and not evil in itself. I do not think this is Gandhi’s point or he would not have labeled “Science without Humanity” as a social sin. Science is like capitalism. It is devoid of morality. At best science like capitalism is amoral but we do not need amorality we need morality. A morality which puts humans and the environment over greed, avarice, jealously and other “immoralities.” I think you should read the “Double Helix” if you want to see how amoral or even immoral science can be. Science is controlled by people and people are fallible and subject to many different vices. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Double_Helix

      I have seen too many instances of science been to serve human needs without thinking of the consequences. As far as science searching for Truth. I think truth is an interesting ideology but I don’t think it exists as an absolute but more of a process. Science is at best going to find approximations to reality which will never be the absolute reality. Science is only one way of discovering “truth.” In the end, truth is what the majority of people agree on.

      Reply

  2. Greg Gorman
    May 28, 2013 @ 03:59:45

    Hi John,
    I’d like to add a few comments of my own regarding your latest submission. You quote Wikipedia as identifying Baruck Spinoza as the “spark plug for the age of enlightenment.” However, Descartes was the inspiration for Spinoza. Although he didn’t agree completely with Descartes’ philosophy, he taught it in schools in order to make a living.
    Whether one believes that one must sacrifice a child to the volcano god, or bury it in a field to ensure good harvest, these are acts of compliance to the existing religion. Religion which require such harsh standards provide easy conversion for those who seek to prostelize. The conversion of the Hawaiin people to Christianity comes to mind. Yet, one cannot dismiss pre-enlightenment religions as indicative of man’s lack of understanding in this world. I believe that Jesus Christ is God because it makes sense that the most effective time for the insertion of deity would be at 0 AD, in the Middle East, in the form of a humble carpenter. Certainly, Confucius, Buddhism, and Islam remain largely unchanged from its initial form. I contend that you underestimate the power of religion in the European nations during this time of enlightenment which was also a time of intense colonization. Don’t forget they were still burning witches both in Europe and America during this time. Although they used scientific advances to conquer their colonies, they still brought along clergy to save these conquered souls. Even in 19th century USA, the Mormons were persecuted and eventually had to deny some of their fundamental beliefs in order to live in peace. From abortion to evolution, people all over the world trust religion more than scientific reasoning.
    With regard to philosophic versus scientific efforts to define reality, attention must be given to the quality of their respective axiomatic foundations. Calendars have been a part of every civilization, and in spite of their fundamental ideas on how the universe works each calendar has been fairly consistent in their accuracy. This shows that you can gather the same empirical evidence from completely different premises. Needless to say there are as many theories in philosophy as there are in economics and many other disciplines. Not so many years ago there were as many degrees in philosophy as there were disciplines of study. The difference with philosophy is that it searches out the truth, i.e. the significance of the basis of the axiomatic definitions upon which each study is built. Philosophy creates the ethical prism through which society can assign value to scientific research. Though some of this credit must be given to Spinoza who questioned what anyone can know given that it is learned only through our 5 senses.
    You ask what Gandhi means by Science without Humanity. Where in the world did you find that resource: an animal’s rights group? If you were to ask Gandhi what he meant I couldn’t imagine that he would say anything remotely resembling your quotation. I wish I had Skype because I simply don’t have the time or motivation to rip apart that sophomoric rambling.
    I do somewhat agree with the remainder of blog. However, scientists are not automatons. Those scientists who created the atom bomb built that for the “greater good”. However, once the genie is out of the bottle, the consequences of this knowledge will be determined by the ethics created by the philosophers whose construction is accepted the people. Scientific progress will go where it can. The philosopher will determine if its direction is for good or for evil. Whether we speak of nuclear weapons, hand guns, drones, inter-galatic telescopes, or genetically modified seed, the progress gained can provide security, knowledge, and sustenance. How this technology is applied will determine its true worth.
    One of my favorite quotes has always been the comment by Max Born that the development of space travel was “A triumph of intellect but a tragic failure of reason.”
    Where did you find that quote and what the hell is he talking about? How is space travel a tragic failure of reason? This guy pioneered quantum mechanics. Who knows what impact space travel will have on mankind? More importantly what kind of man would accept mankind’s future to be limited to life on earth? I have to believe that this quote was taken out of context.
    John, I’m concerned that you’re lack of faith in science is really your lack of faith in humanity. Let’s begin by naming some of the 20th century’s technological gains: small pox, yellow fever, polio, infant mortality, automobiles, air planes, electricity, the transistor, computer, increased communications, etc. Obviously, I could fill volumes describing the advances of science. Although even some of the advances, such as AIDS medication, can be used for evil, not through its application but by restricting its availability. This world is full of human beings, none of whom know everything. Many people spend their lives in study just to be an expert in something. If you go to a doctor about your hip and the doctor recommends a hip replacement. You must remember, he didn’t stop you on the street, you went to see him. If you don’t like his advice, go see some else, do some research. You can believe that his response will be primarily in his own interest, but that doesn’t mean that your interests can’t be the same.
    You supplied a definition of humanity. Somewhere in that definition are you and me, the ignorant and the educated, and the scientist. As a man who has spent most of his in computer science I take great offense of your characterization of a scientist as someone who has no heart. A scientist’s view of the world can certainly be different than others, but certainly not so different, as policeman, social worker, or corporate executive. All have their unique view resulting from the world that they know through their daily lives.
    As I conclude this very long comment, I would ask, “What is your moral compass?” It would seem that you look to a world where people will act in your best interest even if it’s not in theirs.
    Now for your questions:

    Do you believe that science is the best method for solving the world’s problems?
    Science is a tool like many other tools, like negotiation, to be used by our leaders who are acting in our best interest. What is best would depend on the circumstances. What makes this answer clearer is when you ask the question above in the negative.
    How much of the scientific method do you understand? Do you rely on others to explain science to you? Do you value the benefits of science?
    I believe I have a solid understanding of the scientific method. I always rely on others when I’m weak in a subject area. I have no problem asking help from the expert, and I would hope that others would ask me if they have a need in my area of expertise. I am alive today thanks to medical science, so yes I do value it extremely.
    What would you change about science and how it is often interpreted?
    A couple of weeks ago, I was talking to my 6 year old grandson on his porch. His dog Regi was curled up nearby. I mentioned that Regi had a mother and father. He was totally amazed at this. He had never considered how this dog entered his existence. This led to a discussion about mammals which didn’t last a long time because he needed time to digest these new ideas. I hope he will ask his parents about this, or even continue this conversation with me.
    People in general are like this. When information like the universe is expanding and will someday be just a cold and empty space can be disturbing to some. Perhaps it will be ignored because it’s so far in the future. Perhaps it will inspire others to research the validity of this prognosis and come to their own understanding. Regardless of the information, each person must find their own way, whether we discuss electricity or cancer. All anyone can is just put it out there.
    How can we improve our understanding of the world?
    We improve our understanding of the world by being curious. By communicating with others we can compare ideas in order to measure them against the ideas of others.
    Is there any room for magic and religion?
    Absolutely, when I think of the role the Catholic Church has had in the effort to keep life sacred, I see that wisdom has existed in the human heart since ancient times. Today in our world of computerized warfare, cloning, torture of prisoners, and genetically crafted babies, it’s important to never forget the dignity of man. If believing in the scripture continues this understanding. So be it.

    Reply

    • johnpersico
      May 29, 2013 @ 13:20:36

      Greg, quote is from the Gandhi Institute for NonViolence http://www.gandhiinstitute.org/ and it is their interpretation of what Gandhi meant by this sin. If you are interested in religion, tomorrow I will publish my “rantings” on Gandhi’s sixth sin, worship without sacrifice.

      Max Born was probably seeing deeper than I think you give him credit for. It gets to the point that Gandhi was making about science.

      It is amazing to me that Gandhi saw these problems with capitalism, science, religion etc, in 1925 long before they became more obvious to others.

      Have you read my series of his social sins from the start?

      The common theme I think to each sin is the problems that result from a lack of deeper thought, morality or ethics to go along with each of these amoral institutions. Capitalism, Religion, Science, or neither good or bad but how they are used are determined by humans and without a moral compass each of these thought systems has resulted in much evil.

      Did you read my blog on SIN and EVIL? I think you might have some fun with that one.

      A scientist pursuing his trade is like a man making a gun on an assembly line. The issue of heart is irrelevant Greg. The same goes for a capitalist making money for the corporation. Heart has no bearing on the dictum to “make a profit.” This is not to say that some people do not interject this into their efforts but it is not required for the working of science or capitalism. IF you think so, you do not understand the notion of amoral institutions.

      Amorality is an absence of, indifference towards, or disregard for morality. Amorality is a feature of nature: chemistry, geology, biology do not identify morality in rocks, chemicals, or plant life.

      Morality in humans and non-human animals is a subject of dispute among scientists and philosophers. If morality is intrinsic to humanity, then amoral human beings either do not exist or are only deficient human. If morality is extrinsic to humanity, then amoral human beings can both exist and be fully human, and may be amoral either by nature or by choice.

      Amoral should not be confused with immoral, which refers to an agent doing or thinking something he or she knows or believes to be wrong.

      Read the Death of Character Greg, I think you will enjoy it. Also read The Empire of Illusion by Chris Hedges.

      If you can point me to a better job of interpreting Gandhi on his Seven Social Sins than the Gandhi Institute, please send me your source.

      Thanks for the comments Greg and thanks for the answers to my questions. You may be the only person in the universe who has taken the time so far to answer any of my questions since my first blog about 700 or so blogs ago.

      I have been not doing much except recovering from some medical problems so I have not been very communicative these days except to publish some blogs. I decided that Gandhi’s ideas needed some more exposure, perhaps an arrogant thought on my part, but I really resonated with his seven and his son’s eight social sin so I decided to help highlight these on my blog. Remember what Franklin said:

      “Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing.”

      I believe Gandhi’s ideas are worth writing about. I am too lazy to do something worth writing about these days.

      John

      Reply

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